Defenders spend a lot of time worrying about the security of the user identities they manage. Trying to stop phishing attempts or deploying MFA. You want to restrict privilege, have good passphrase policies and deploy passwordless solutions. If you use Azure AD, there is another type of identity that is important to keep an eye on – Azure AD service principals.
There is an overview of service principals here. Think about your regular user account. When you want to access Office 365, you have a user principal in Azure AD. You give that user access, to SharePoint, Outlook and Teams, and when you sign in you get that access. Your applications are the same. They have a principal in Azure AD, called a service principal. These define what your applications can access.
You haven’t seen anywhere in the Azure AD portal a ‘create service principal’ button. Because there isn’t one. Yet you likely have plenty of service principals already in your tenant. So how do they get there? Well, in several ways.
So if we complete any of the following actions, we will end up with a service principal –
- Add an application registration – each time you register an application. For example to enable SSO for an application you are developing. Or to integrate with Microsoft Graph. You will end up with both an application object and an service principal in your tenant.
- Install a third party OAuth application – if you install an app to your tenant. For instance an application in Microsoft Teams. You will have a service principal created for it.
- Install a template SAML application from the gallery – when you setup SSO with a third party SaaS product. If you deploy their gallery application to help. Both an application object and a service principal in your tenant.
- Add a managed identity – each time you create a managed identity, you also create a service principal.
You may also have legacy service principals. Created before the current app registration process existed.
If you browse to Azure AD -> Enterprise applications, you can view them all. Are all these service principals a problem? Not at all, it is the way that Azure Active Directory works. It uses service principals to define access and permissions for applications. Service principals are in a lot of ways much more secure than alternatives. Take a service principal for a managed identity – it can end the need for developers to use credentials. If you want an Azure virtual machine to access to an Azure Key Vault, you can create a managed identity. This also creates a service principal in Azure AD. Then assign the service principal access to your key vault. Your virtual machine then identifies itself to the key vault. The key vault says ‘hey I know this service principal has access to this key vault’ and gives it access. Much better than handling passwords and credentials in code.
In the case of a system assigned managed identity, the lifecycle of the service principal is also managed. If you create a managed identity for a Azure virtual machine then decommission the virtual machine. The service principal, and any access it has, is also removed.
Like any identity, we can grant service principals excess privilege. You could make a service account in on premise Active Directory a domain admin, you shouldn’t, but you can. Service principals are the same, we can assign all kinds of privilege in Azure AD and to Azure resources. So how can service principals get privilege, and what kind of privilege can they have? We can build on our visualization of we created service principals. Now we add how they gain privilege.
So much like users, we can assign various access to service principals, such as –
- Assigned an Azure AD to role – if we add them to roles such as global or application administrator.
- Granted access to the Microsoft Graph or other Microsoft API – if we add permissions like Directory.ReadWrite.All or Policy.ReadWrite.ConditionalAccess from Microsoft Graph. Or other API access like Defender ATP or Dynamics 365, or your own APIs.
- Granted access to Azure RBAC – if we add access such as owner rights to a subscription or contributor to a resource group.
- Given access to specific Azure workloads – such as being able to read secrets from an Azure Key Vault.
Service principals having privilege is not an issue, in fact, they need to have privilege. If we want to be able to SSO users to Azure AD then the service principal needs that access. Or if we want to automate retrieving emails from a shared mailbox then we will need to provide that access. Like users, we can assign incorrect or excessive privilege which is then open to abuse. Explore the abuse of service principals by checking the following article from @DebugPrivilege. It shows how you can use the managed identity of a virtual machine to retrieve secrets from a key vault.
We can get visibility into any of these changes in Microsoft Sentinel. When we grant a service principal access to Azure AD or to Microsoft Graph, we use the Azure AD Audit log. Which we access via the AuditLogs table in Sentinel. For changes to Azure RBAC and specific Azure resources, we use the AzureActivity or AzureDiagnostics table.
You can add Azure AD Audit Logs to your Sentinel instance. You do this via the Azure Active Directory connector under data connectors. This is a very useful table but ingestion fees will apply.
For the sake of this blog, I have created a service principal called ‘Learn Sentinel’. I used the app registration portal in Azure AD. We will now give privilege to that service principal and then detect in Sentinel.
Adding Azure Active Directory Roles to a Service Principal
If we work through our list of how a service principal can gain privilege we will start with adding an Azure AD role. I have added the ‘Application Administrator’ role to my service principal using PowerShell. We can run the cmdlet below. Where ObjectId is the Id of the role, and RefObjectId is the Object Id of the service principal. You can get all the Ids of all the roles by first running Get-AzureADDirectoryRole first.
Add-AzureADDirectoryRoleMember -ObjectId 67513fd7-cc60-456c-9cdd-c962c884fbdc -RefObjectId a0f399db-f358-429c-a743-735ab902fcbe
We track this activity under the action ‘Add member to role’ in our Audit Log. Which is the same action you see when we add a regular user account to a role. There is a field, nested in the TargetResources data, that we can leverage to ensure our query only returns service principals –
If we complete our query, we can filter for only events where the type is “ServicePrincipal”
AuditLogs | where OperationName == "Add member to role" | extend ServicePrincipalType = tostring(TargetResources.type) | extend ServicePrincipalObjectId = tostring(TargetResources.id) | extend RoleAdded = tostring(parse_json(tostring(parse_json(tostring(TargetResources.modifiedProperties)).newValue))) | extend ServicePrincipalName = tostring(TargetResources.displayName) | extend Actor = tostring(parse_json(tostring(InitiatedBy.user)).userPrincipalName) | extend ActorIPAddress = tostring(parse_json(tostring(InitiatedBy.user)).ipAddress) | where ServicePrincipalType == "ServicePrincipal" | project TimeGenerated, OperationName, RoleAdded, ServicePrincipalName, ServicePrincipalObjectId, Actor, ActorIPAddress
If we run our query we see the activity with the details we need. When the event occurred, what role, to which service principal, and who did it.
Everyone uses Azure AD in different ways, but this should not be a very common event in most tenants. Especially with high privilege roles such as Application, Privileged Authentication or Global Administrator. You should alert on any of these events. To see how you could abuse the Application Administrator role, check out this blog post from @_wald0. It shows how you can leverage that role to escalate privilege.
Adding Microsoft Graph (or other API) access to a Service Principal
If you create service principals for integration with other Microsoft services like Azure AD or Office 365 you will need to add access to make it work. It is common for third party applications, or those you are developing in house, to request access. It is important to only grant the access required.
For this example I have added
- Policy.ReadWrite.ConditionalAccess (ability to read & write conditional access policies)
- User.Read.All (read users full profiles)
to our same service principal.
When we add Microsoft Graph access to an app, the Azure AD Audit Log tracks the event as “Add app role assignment to service principal”. We can parse out the relevant information we want in our query to return the specifics. You can use this as the completed query to find these events, including the user that did it.
AuditLogs | where OperationName == "Add app role assignment to service principal" | extend AppRoleAdded = tostring(parse_json(tostring(parse_json(tostring(TargetResources.modifiedProperties)).newValue))) | extend ActorIPAddress = tostring(parse_json(tostring(InitiatedBy.user)).ipAddress) | extend Actor = tostring(parse_json(tostring(InitiatedBy.user)).userPrincipalName) | extend ServicePrincipalObjectId = tostring(parse_json(tostring(parse_json(tostring(TargetResources.modifiedProperties)).newValue))) | extend ServicePrincipalName = tostring(parse_json(tostring(parse_json(tostring(TargetResources.modifiedProperties)).newValue))) | project TimeGenerated, OperationName, AppRoleAdded, ServicePrincipalName, ServicePrincipalObjectId,Actor, ActorIPAddress
When we run our query we see the events, even though I added both permissions together, we get two events.
Depending on how often you create service principals in your tenant, and who can grant access I would alert on all these events to ensure that service principals are not granted excessive privilege. This query also covers other Microsoft APIs such as Dynamics or Defender, and your own personal APIs you protect with Azure AD.
Adding Azure access to a Service Principal
We can grant service principals access to high level management scopes in Azure, such as subscriptions or resource groups. For instance, if you had an asset management system that you used to track your assets in Azure. It could use Azure AD for authentication and authorization. You would create a service principal for your asset management system, then give it read access your subscriptions. The asset management application could then view all your assets in those subscriptions. We track these kind of access changes in the AzureActivity log. This is a free table so you should definitely ingest it.
For this example I have added our service principal as a contributor on a subscription and a reader on a resource group.
The AzureActivity log can be quite verbose and the structure of the logs changes often. For permissions changes we are after the OperationNameValue of “MICROSOFT.AUTHORIZATION/ROLEASSIGNMENTS/WRITE”. When we look at the structure of some of the logs, we can see that we can filter on service principals. As opposed to granting users access.
We can use this query to search for all events where a service principal was given access.
AzureActivity | where OperationNameValue == "MICROSOFT.AUTHORIZATION/ROLEASSIGNMENTS/WRITE" | extend ServicePrincipalObjectId = tostring(parse_json(tostring(parse_json(tostring(Properties_d.requestbody)).Properties)).PrincipalId) | extend ServicePrincipalType = tostring(parse_json(tostring(parse_json(tostring(Properties_d.requestbody)).Properties)).PrincipalType) | extend Scope = tostring(parse_json(tostring(parse_json(tostring(Properties_d.requestbody)).Properties)).Scope) | extend RoleAdded = tostring(parse_json(tostring(parse_json(tostring(parse_json(Properties).requestbody)).Properties)).RoleDefinitionId) | extend Actor = tostring(Properties_d.caller) | where ServicePrincipalType == "ServicePrincipal" | project TimeGenerated, RoleAdded, Scope, ServicePrincipalObjectId, Actor
We see our two events. The first when I added a service principal to the subscription, then second to a resource group. You can see the target under ‘Scope’.
You will notice a couple of things. The name of role assigned (in this example, contributor and reader) isn’t returned. Instead we see the role id (the final section of the RoleAdded field). You can find the list of mappings here. We are also only returned the object id of our service principal, not the friendly name. Unfortunately the friendly name isn’t contained within the logs, but this still alerts us to investigate.
When you assign access to subscription or resource group, you may notice you have an option. Either a user, group or service principal or a managed identity.
The above query will find any events for service principals or managed identities. You won’t need a specific one for managed identities.
Adding Azure workload access to a Service Principal
We can also grant our service principals access to Azure workloads. Take for instance being able to read or write secrets into an Azure Key Vault. We will use that as our example below. I have given our service principal the ability to read and list secrets from a key vault.
We track this in the AzureDiagnostics table for Azure Key Vault. We can use the following query to track key vault changes.
AzureDiagnostics | where ResourceType == "VAULTS" | where OperationName == "VaultPatch" | where ResultType == "Success" | project-rename ServicePrincipalAdded=addedAccessPolicy_ObjectId_g, Actor=identity_claim_http_schemas_xmlsoap_org_ws_2005_05_identity_claims_name_s, AddedKeyPolicy = addedAccessPolicy_Permissions_keys_s, AddedSecretPolicy = addedAccessPolicy_Permissions_secrets_s,AddedCertPolicy = addedAccessPolicy_Permissions_certificates_s | where isnotempty(AddedKeyPolicy) or isnotempty(AddedSecretPolicy) or isnotempty(AddedCertPolicy) | project TimeGenerated, KeyVaultName=Resource, ServicePrincipalAdded, Actor, IPAddressofActor=CallerIPAddress, AddedSecretPolicy, AddedKeyPolicy, AddedCertPolicy
We find the service principal Id that we added, the key vault permissions added, the name of the vault and who did it.
We could add a service principal to many Azure resources. Azure Storage, Key Vault, SQL, are a few, but similar events should be available for them all.
Azure AD Service Principal Sign In Data
As well as audit data to track access changes, we can also view the sign in information for service principals and managed identities. Microsoft Sentinel logs these two types of sign ins in two separate tables. For regular service principals we query the AADServicePrincipalSignInLogs. For managed identity sign in data we look in AADManagedIdentitySignInLogs. You can enable both logs in the Azure Active Directory data connector. These should be low volume compared to regular sign in data but fees will apply.
Service principals sign in logs aren’t as detailed as your regular user sign in data. These types of sign ins are non interactive and are instead accessing resources protected by Azure AD. There are no fields for things like multifactor authentication or anything like that. This makes the data easy to make sense of. If we look at a sign in for our test service principal, you will see the information you have available to you.
AADServicePrincipalSignInLogs | project TimeGenerated, ResultType, IPAddress, ServicePrincipalName, ServicePrincipalId, ServicePrincipalCredentialKeyId, AppId, ResourceDisplayName, ResourceIdentity
We can see we get some great information. There are other fields available but for the sake of brevity I will only show a few.
We get a ResultType, much like a regular user sign in (0 = success). The IP address, the name of the service principal, then the Id’s of pretty much everything. Even the resource the service principal was accessing. We can summarize our data to see patterns for all our service principals. For instance, by listing all the IP addresses each service principal has signed in from in the last month.
AADServicePrincipalSignInLogs | where TimeGenerated > ago(30d) | where ResultType == "0" | summarize IPAddresses=make_set(IPAddress) by ServicePrincipalName, AppId
Conditional Access for workload identities was recently released for Azure AD. If your service principals log in from the same IP addresses then enforce that with conditional access. That way, if we lose client secrets or certificates, and an attacker signs in from a new IP address we will block it. Much like conditional access for users. The above query will give you your baseline of IP addresses to start building policies.
We can also summarize the resources that each service principal has accessed. If you have service principals that can access many resources such as Microsoft Graph, the Windows Defender ATP API and Azure Service Management API. Those service principals likely have a larger blast radius if compromised –
AADServicePrincipalSignInLogs | where TimeGenerated > ago(30d) | where ResultType == "0" | summarize ResourcesAccessed=make_set(ResourceDisplayName) by ServicePrincipalName
We can use similar detection patterns we would use for users with service principals. For instance detecting when they sign in from a new IP address not seen for that service principal. This query alerts when a service principal signs in to a new IP address in the last week compared to the prior 180 days.
let timeframe = 180d; AADServicePrincipalSignInLogs | where TimeGenerated > ago(timeframe) and TimeGenerated < ago(7d) | distinct AppId, IPAddress | join kind=rightanti ( AADServicePrincipalSignInLogs | where TimeGenerated > ago(7d) | project TimeGenerated, AppId, IPAddress, ResultType, ServicePrincipalName ) on IPAddress | where ResultType == "0" | distinct ServicePrincipalName, AppId, IPAddress
For managed identities we get a cut down version of the service principal sign in data. For instance we don’t get IP address information because managed identities are used ‘internally’ within Azure AD. But we can still track them in similar ways. For instance we can summarize all the resources each managed identity accesses. For instance Azure Key Vault, Azure Storage, Azure SQL. The higher the count, then the higher the blast radius.
AADManagedIdentitySignInLogs | where TimeGenerated > ago(30d) | where ResultType == 0 | summarize ResourcesAccessed=make_set(ResourceDisplayName) by ServicePrincipalName
We can also detect when a managed identity accesses a new resource that it hadn’t before. This query will return any managed identities that access resources that they hadn’t in the prior 60 days. For example, if you have a managed identity that previously only accessed Azure Storage, then accesses an Azure Key Vault, this would find that event.
AADManagedIdentitySignInLogs | where TimeGenerated > ago (60d) and TimeGenerated < ago(1d) | where ResultType == "0" | distinct ServicePrincipalId, ResourceIdentity | join kind=rightanti ( AADManagedIdentitySignInLogs | where TimeGenerated > ago (1d) | where ResultType == "0" ) on ServicePrincipalId, ResourceIdentity | distinct ServicePrincipalId, ServicePrincipalName, ResourceIdentity, ResourceDisplayName
Prevention, always better than detection.
As with anything, preventing issues is better than detecting them. The nature of service principals though is they are always going to have some privilege. It is about reducing risk in your environment through least privilege.
- Get to know your Azure AD roles and Microsoft Graph permisions. Assign only what you need. Avoid using roles like Global Administrator and Application Adminstrator. Limit permissions such as Directory.Read.All and Directory.ReadWrite. All are high privilege and should not be required. Azure AD roles can also be scoped to reduce privilege to only what is required.
- Alert when service principals are assigned roles in Azure AD or granted access to Microsoft Graph using the queries above. Investigate whether the permissions are appropriate to the workload.
- Make sure that any access granted to Azure management scopes or workloads is fit for purpose. Owner, contributor and user access administrator are all very high privilege.
- Leverage Azure AD Conditional Access for workload identities. If your service principals sign in from a known set of IP addresses, then enforce that in policy.
- Don’t be afraid to push back on third parties or internal developers about the privilege required to make their application work. The Azure AD and Microsoft Graph documentation is easy to read and understand and the permissions are very granular.
Finally, some handy links from within this article and elsewhere